"Infinite Jest: Reviews, Articles, and Miscellany"

John Updike, Champion Literary Phallocrat, Drops One; Is This Finally the End for Magnificent Narcissists?

by David Foster Wallace

The New York Observer
October 13, 1997



"Of nothing but me I sing, lacking another song."

-- John Updike, Midpoint, 1969


Mailer, Updike, Roth -- the Great Male Narcissists* who've dominated
postwar realist fiction are now in their senescence, and it must seem to
them no coincidence that the prospect of their own deaths appears
backlit by the approaching millennium and on-line predictions of the
death of the novel as we know it. When a solipsist dies, after all,
everything goes with him. And no U.S. novelist has mapped the
solipsist's terrain better than John Updike, whose rise in the 60s and
70s established him as both chronicler and voice of probably the single
most self-absorbed generation since Louis XIV. As were Freud's, Mr.
Updike's big preoccupations have always been with death and sex (not
necessarily in that order), and the fact that the mood of his books has
gotten more wintery in recent years is understandable -- Mr. Updike has
always written largely about himself, and since the surprisingly moving
Rabbit at Rest he's been exploring, more and more overtly, the
apocalyptic prospect of his own death.

Toward the End of Time concerns an incredibly erudite, articulate,
successful, narcissistic and sex-obsessed retired guy who's keeping a
one-year journal in which he explores the apocalyptic prospect of his
own death. It is, of the total 25 Updike books I've read, far and away
the worst, a novel so mind-bendingly clunky and self-indulgent that it's
hard to believe the author let it be published in this kind of shape.

I'm afraid the preceding sentence is this review's upshot, and most of
the balance here will consist of presenting evidence/ justification for
such a disrespectful assessment. First, though, if I may poke the
critical head into the frame for just one moment, I'd like to offer
assurances that your reviewer is not one of these spleen-venting,
spittle-spattering Updike-haters one encounters among literary readers
under 40. The fact is that I am probably classifiable as one of very few
actual sub-40 Updike fans. Not as rabid a fan as, say, Nicholson Baker,
but I do think that The Poorhouse Fair, Of the Farm and The Centaur are
all great books, maybe classics. And even since Rabbit Is Rich -- as his
characters seemed to become more and more repellent, and without any
corresponding indication that the author understood that they were
repellent -- I've continued to read Mr. Updike's novels and to admire the
sheer gorgeousness of his descriptive prose.

Most of the literary readers I know personally are under 40, and a fair
number are female, and none of them are big admirers of the postwar
G.M.N.'s. But it's Mr. Updike in particular they seem to hate. And not
merely his books, for some reason -- mention the poor man himself and you
have to jump back:

"Just a penis with a thesaurus."

"Has the son of a bitch ever had one unpublished thought?"

"Makes misogyny seem literary the same way Limbaugh makes fascism seem
funny."

These are actual -- trust me -- quotations, and I've heard even worse ones,
and they're all usually accompanied by the sort of facial expression
where you can tell there's not going to be any profit in arguing or
talking about the esthetic pleasure of Mr. Updike's prose. None of the
other famous phallocrats of his generation -- not Mailer, not Frederick
Exley or Charles Bukowski or even the Samuel Delany of Hogg -- excites such
violent dislike. There are, of course, some obvious explanations for
part of this dislike -- jealousy, iconoclasm, P.C. backlash, and the fact
that many of our parents revere Mr. Updike and it's easy to revile what
your parents revere. But I think the major reason so many of my
generation dislike Mr. Updike and the other G.M.N.'s has to do with
these writers' radical self-absorption, and with their uncritical
celebration of this self-absorption both in themselves and in their
characters.

Mr. Updike, for example, has for years been constructing protagonists
who are basically all the same guy (see for example Rabbit Angstrom,
Dick Maple, Piet Hanema, Henry Bech, Rev. Tom Marshfield, Roger's
Version
's "Uncle Nunc") and who are all clearly stand-ins for the author
himself. They always live in either Pennsylvania or New England, are
unhappily married/divorced, are roughly Mr. Updike's age. Always either
the narrator or the point-of-view character, they all have the author's
astounding perceptual gifts; they all think and speak in the same
effortlessly lush, synesthetic way Mr. Updike does. They are also always
incorrigibly narcissistic, philandering, self-contemptuous, self-pitying
and deeply alone, alone the way only a solipsist can be alone. They
never belong to any sort of larger unit or community or cause. Though
usually family men, they never really love anybody -- and, though always
heterosexual to the point of satyriasis, they especially don't love
women. The very world around them, as beautifully as they see and
describe it, seems to exist for them only insofar as it evokes
impressions and associations and emotions inside the self.

I'm guessing that for the young educated adults of the 60s and 70s,
for whom the ultimate horror was the hypocritical conformity and
repression of their own parents' generation, Mr. Updike's evocation of
the libidinous self appeared redemptive and even heroic. But the young
educated adults of the 90s -- who were, of course, the children of the
same impassioned infidelities and divorces Mr. Updike wrote about so
beautifully -- got to watch all this brave new individualism and
self-expression and sexual freedom deteriorate into the joyless and
anomic self-indulgence of the Me Generation. Today's sub-40s have
different horrors, prominent among which are anomie and solipsism and a
peculiarly American loneliness: the prospect of dying without once
having loved something more than yourself. Ben Turnbull, the narrator of
Mr. Updike's latest novel, is 66 years old and heading for just such a
death, and he's shitlessly scared. Like so many of the novelist's
protagonists, though, Turnbull seems to be scared of all the wrong
things.

Toward the End of Time is being marketed by its publisher as an
ambitious departure for Mr. Updike, his foray into the
futuristic-dystopic tradition of Aldous Huxley and soft sci-fi. The year
is A.D. 2020, and time has not been kind. A Sino-American missile war
has killed millions and ended centralized government as Americans know
it. The dollar's gone; Massachusetts now uses scrip named for Bill Weld.
No taxes -- local toughs now get protection money to protect the upscale
from other local toughs. AIDS has been cured, the Midwest is
depopulated, and parts of Boston are bombed out and (presumably?)
irradiated. An abandoned space station hangs in the night sky like a
junior moon. There are tiny but rapacious "metallobioforms" that have
mutated from toxic waste and go around eating electricity and the
occasional human. Mexico has reappropriated the U.S. Southwest and is
threatening wholesale invasion even as thousands of young Americans are
sneaking across the Rio Grande in search of a better life. America, in
short, is getting ready to die.

The book's postmillennial elements are sometimes cool, and they truly
would represent an interesting departure for Mr. Updike if they weren't
all so sketchy and tangential. What 95 percent of Toward the End of Time
actually consists of is Turnbull describing the prenominate flora (over
and over as each season passes) and his brittle, castrating wife Gloria,
and remembering the ex-wife who divorced him for adultery, and
rhapsodizing about a young prostitute he moves into the house when
Gloria's away on a trip. It's also got a lot of pages of Turnbull
brooding about decay and mortality and the tragedy of the human
condition, and even more pages of Turnbull talking about sex and the
imperiousness of the sexual urge and detailing how he lusts after
assorted secretaries and neighbors and bridge partners and
daughters-in-law and a little girl who's part of the group of young
toughs he pays protection to, a 13-year-old whose breasts -- "shallow taut
cones tipped with honeysuckle-berry nipples" -- Turnbull finally gets to
fondle in the woods behind his house when his wife's not looking.

In case this sounds like a harsh summary, here's hard statistical
evidence of just how much a "departure" for Mr. Updike this novel really
is:

Total number of pages about the Sino-American war -- causes, duration,
casualties: 0.75;

Total number of pages about deadly mutant metallobioforms: 1.5;

Total number of pages about flora around Turnbull's home, plus fauna,
weather and how his ocean view looks in different seasons: 86;

Total number of pages about Mexico's repossession of the U.S. Southwest:
0.1;

Total number of pages about Ben Turnbull's penis and his various
feelings about it: 7.5;

Total number of pages about the prostitute's body, with particular
attention to sexual loci: 8.75;

Total number of pages about golf: 15;

Total number of pages of Ben Turnbull saying things like "I want women
to be dirty" and "We are condemned, men and women, to symbiosis" and
"She was a choice cut of meat and I hoped she held out for a fair price"
and "The sexual parts are fiends, sacrificing everything to that aching
point of contact": 36.5.

The novel's best parts are a half-dozen little set pieces where Turnbull
imagines himself inhabiting different historical figures -- a tomb-robber
in ancient Egypt, Saint Mark, a guard at a Nazi death camp, etc. They're
gems, and I wished there were more of them. The problem is that they
don't serve much of a function here other than to remind us that Mr.
Updike can write great imaginative set pieces when he's in the mood.
Their justification in the novel stems from the fact that the narrator
is a science fan. Turnbull is particularly keen on subatomic physics and
something he calls the theory of "many worlds" -- which actually dates from
1957 and is a proposed solution to certain quantum paradoxes entailed by
the principles of Uncertainty and Complementarity, and which is
unbelievably abstract and complicated but which Turnbull seems to
think is roughly the same thing as the Theory of Past-Life Channeling,
apparently thereby explaining the set pieces where Turnbull is somebody
else. The whole quantum setup ends up being embarrassing the way
something pretentious is embarrassing when it's also wrong.

Better, and more convincingly "futuristic," are the narrator's
soliloquies on the blue-to-red shift and the eventual implosion of the
known universe near the book's end, and this would be among the novel's
highlights, too, if it weren't for the fact that Turnbull is interested
in cosmic apocalypse only because it serves as a grand metaphor for his
own personal death -- likewise all the Housmanesque descriptions of the
optometrically significant "Year 2020," and the book's final, heavy
description of "small pale moths [that] have mistakenly hatched" on a
late-autumn day and now "flip and flutter a foot or two above the
asphalt as if trapped in a narrow wedge of space-time beneath the
obliterating imminence of winter."

The clunky bathos of this novel seems to have infected even the prose,
John Updike's great strength for almost 40 years. Toward the End of Time
has occasional flashes of beautiful writing -- deer described as
"tender-faced ruminants," leaves as "chewed to lace by Japanese
beetles," a car's tight turn as a "slur." But a horrific percentage of
the book consists of stuff like "Why indeed do women weep? They weep, it
seemed to my wandering mind, for the world itself, in its beauty and
waste, its mingled cruelty and tenderness" and "How much of summer is
over before it begins! Its beginning marks its end, as our birth entails
our death" and "This development seems remote, however, among the many
more urgent issues of survival on our blasted, depopulated planet." Not
to mention whole reams of sentences with so many modifiers -- "The
insouciance and innocence of our independence twinkled like a kind of
sweat from their bare and freckled or honey-colored or mahogany
limbs" -- or so much subordination -- "As our species, having given itself a
hard hit, staggers, the others, all but counted out, moved in" -- and such
heavy alliteration -- "The broad sea blares a blue I would not have
believed obtainable without a tinted filter" -- that they seem less like
John Updike than like somebody doing a mean parody of John Updike.

Besides distracting us with worries about whether Mr. Updike might be
injured or ill, the turgidity of the prose also increases our dislike of
the novel's narrator (it's hard to like a guy whose way of saying his
wife doesn't like going to bed before him is "She hated it when I crept
into bed and disturbed in her the fragile succession of steps whereby
consciousness dissolves"). This dislike absolutely torpedoes Toward the
End of Time
, a novel whose tragic climax (in a late chapter called "The
Deaths") is a prostate operation that leaves Turnbull impotent and
extremely bummed. It is made very clear that the author expects us to
sympathize with and even share Turnbull's grief at "the pathetic
shrunken wreck the procedures [have] made of my beloved genitals." These
demands on our compassion echo the major crisis of the book's first
half, described in a flashback, where we are supposed to empathize not
only with the textbookish existential dread that hits Turnbull at 30 as
he's in his basement building a dollhouse for his daughter -- "I would die,
but also the little girl I was making this for would die. There was no
God, each detail of the rusting, moldering cellar made clear, just
Nature, which would consume my life as carelessly and relentlessly as it
would a dung-beetle corpse in a compost pile" -- but also with Turnbull's
relief at discovering a remedy for this dread -- "an affair, my first. Its
colorful weave of carnal revelation and intoxicating risk and craven
guilt eclipsed the devouring gray sensation of time."

Maybe the only thing the reader ends up appreciating about Ben Turnbull
is that he's such a broad caricature of an Updike protagonist that he
helps us figure out what's been so unpleasant and frustrating about this
gifted author's recent characters. It's not that Turnbull is stupid -- he
can quote Kierkegaard and Pascal on angst and allude to the deaths of
Schubert and Mozart and distinguish between a sinistrorse and a
dextrorse Polygonum vine, etc. It's that he persists in the bizarre
adolescent idea that getting to have sex with whomever one wants
whenever one wants is a cure for ontological despair. And so, it
appears, does Mr. Updike -- he makes it plain that he views the narrator's
impotence as catastrophic, as the ultimate symbol of death itself, and
he clearly wants us to mourn it as much as Turnbull does. I'm not
especially offended by this attitude; I mostly just don't get it. Erect
or flaccid, Ben Turnbull's unhappiness is obvious right from the book's
first page. But it never once occurs to him that the reason he's so
unhappy is that he's an asshole.

__________

* Unless, of course, you consider constructing long encomiums to a
woman's "sacred several-lipped gateway" or saying things like "It is
true, the sight of her plump lips obediently distended around my swollen
member, her eyelids lowered demurely, afflicts me with a religious
peace" to be the same as loving her.



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